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Research Study Case Solution


The study design used for the research will be a mixture of Cohort study (prospective observational study) and causal study. We aim to use the cohort study as it defines and describes a certain condition in response of certain habits and treatments which are arrived over the period of time. The causal study design will be used in order to determine the effect of smoking on the heart condition-rate of heart attacks on the smoker. We will also extend our study to the factors/effects of smoking o passive smokers (People who do not smoke but inhale the smoke are passive smokers).

The other reason to select this study design is, it will take into account the people who are smokers or have encountered heart attack after starting to smoke. However, those people will also be a part of study that have never been exposed to smoke and has countered heart attack, in addition a cohort or group of such people will also be analyzed who have been smoking for longtime and has not counted the heat attack.

The cohort study will enable us to form different groups based on the factors and features that keep them distinctive.

Variables involved

There are two types of variables that will be studied in the study

Dependent variables

The dependent variables in our study are the weakening of heart tissues leading to Heart attack, rate of heart attack is our dependent variable. This is occurred due to number of reasons.

Independent variables

The independent variables are those variables due to which the disease has occurred.

  • Smoking Habits

The smoking habits greatly affect the frequency and extent of heart attack, we will analyze the smoking habits of the group, which include how many times a person smokes in a day and what are the timings of smoking( before meal , or after meal)


  • Tenure of smoking

How long the smoker has been smoking, how many years he/she has been into smoking and at what year they encountered the heart attack.

  • Age

Age is also an independent factor. We will determine at what age the group/individual has started smoking and at what age he/she encountered heart attack.

Weakening of heart has a direct relation with the frequency of heart attack.

  • Stress/Depression

Stress and depression greatly influence the rate of heart attacks and also make people to smoke. The level of stress directly affect the chances of heart attack and frequency of smoking.

Background/ Introduction

The issue that has made us to carry out this research is the increasing number of heart attacks due to smoking, the majority of the population in able-town and small town are countering heart diseases due to smoking. The doctors and management f the town has made an assumption that due to high rate of smoking at public places, the heart diseases are developing in non-smokers too, making the population sick.

The effect of such smoking habits is that it affects the health of smokers and even non-smokers, the family systems are getting disturbed because due to smoking if the bread winner encounters a heart attack he may get paralyzed and the burden has to be shifted to government than. Moreover, due to increasing heart disease, there is a shortage of employee force in the market, and workforce needed to perform rigorous tasks has been reduced. It is causing the development of a country and if see specifically towns dragging the towns towards the low scale of poverty.

The other epidemiological studies have also supported our thesis that smoking has direct impact on the health of a person, causing heart attacks. It is also found that the non-smokers are affected more as compared to smokers. Some researchers have suggested banning smoking in public areas as it is causing more severe outcomes, such as Black cough, lung cancer and heart diseases.

Some researchers have also commented on the fact that heart disease in independent of smoking. The term stress was coined by researches framing it a reason of heart attacks.

Research Question

  • How does smoking effects or triggers the conotary heart disease?
  • How passive smokers do develops heart disease?
  • What is the impact of smoking on non-smokers
  • How does the rate of smoking effects the chances of Heart attack?

Objective of the study

The objective of the study is to determine the effect of smoking on heart disease, and find a relation if smoking triggers cardiovascular issues or not. Furthermore, the study aims to find the impact of smoking on nonsmokers, their chances of developing heart disease. In the end, the study aims to find the ground as so which individuals develop heart diseases whether they are smokers or non-smokers....................................

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