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MIS Project Case Solution

13-1 How do building new systems produce organizational change?

Describe each of the four kinds of organizational change that can be promoted with information technology.

If one reads text and looks at figure 13.1, it will show us few different kinds of organizational changes. As described in text, these include: automation, rationalization, redesign, and paradigm shifts

Automation is the ability to orchestrate and integrate tools, people and processes through workflow, benefits include: reduced human errors, faster response to mission-critical system problems and more efficient allocation of resources

Rationalization: Medium risk, medium reward. It involves streamlining standard operating procedures, redesigning business processes, work flows, and user interfaces.

  • Business Process Redesign: Analyze, simplify and redesign business process, rethink and streamline business process to improve speed, service and quality.
  • Paradigm shift: This involves rethinking the nature of the business and the nature of the organization.

13-2 What are the core activities in the systems development process?

Distinguish between systems analysis and systems design. Describe the activities for each.


System analysis is the process by which we determine the problem and issues that the firm tries to resolve within an information system. The whole cycle involves the identification of problem sources of the problem, its root causes and determining the solution and knowledge requirement to deal with the problems. System analyst performs this work by getting information about the organization and the users of the system by obtaining different documents. He can also achieve the desired results by interviewing the staff and identifying problematic areas and could then propose a solution for the purpose; this could either be system transformation or system design to meet the changes required.

He can also perform a feasibility study for the expected outcomes of the transformed systems. System analysis identifies several alternatives and it is up to the management to determine its most useful plan and implement it accordingly. System analyst needs a perfect set of information to establish his/her opinion regarding who are the users of the system and what are their capabilities.


After system analysis regarding the description of problems and how actually the system wants to work, system design is the whole process by how the system analyst is going to implement those changes which he has decided to change and how he would design the system in such a way that the users could get maximum advantage without lacking in anything. It is a system model. This model is based on all of the technological organizational and financial transformation that a system needs. It is a unique set of programs fulfilling the needs of the users.


It is a crucial stage as it involves the designing of the system. It is a conversion of WHAT into HOW. Detailed description about the problems helps to produce physical design from logical design. The steps are input, output, databases, forms, codes generation and processing specifications details along with language designs and hardware software compatibility. Moreover, the question arises as to what are the limitations of the system and what is the most advantageous feature. Documentation, training backups and all the important decisions regarding software are determined at this stage.


Information requirement is necessary, and faulty assessments lead to ineffective software developments. However, this is one of the most difficult tasks because there are many steps involved in this process, and information gathering measures might not be accurate or in the right direction. Some problems require solution rather than complete replacement of the software. The set of information must be complete in nature to evaluate and decide whether it needs changes or complete replacement from new software.

Explain why the testing stage of systems development is so important. Name and describe the three stages of testing for an information system?


The testing phase is critical because it is the primary step to assess whether the system will be useful for the needs of the users of the system. The system developer should be competent enough to establish whether the system has produced the required results or not; the three stages of testing phase are:

Unit testing:

In this juncture, we assess individual programs and applications, which check them separately and then evaluate their performance.

System testing:

In this stage, we test the entire system programs and the compatibility, along with the support of each program with each other, as well as regarding the working of a program as planned.......................

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